This volume contains the formal record of the lectures presented at the 9th Course of the International School of Radiation Damage and Protection held at the "E . Majorana" International Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice (Italy) from May 9 to May 20, 1989. This course was the last of a series of 4 courses, started in 1981, that were dedicated to the assessment of risk hazard from non-ionizing radiation. The proceedings of these courses were all published by Plenum Press with the following headings: 1) M. Grandolfo, S. M. Michaelson and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Nonionizing Radiation; Radiofrequency and Microwave Energy", Plenum Press, New York, NATO ASI Series A Life Sciences, Vo1. 49 (1983); 2) M. Grandolfo, S. M. Michaelson and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Static and ELF Electromagnetic Fields", Plenum Press, New York, E. Majorana International Science Series, Life Sciences, Vol. 19 (1985) ; 3) M. H. Repacholi, M. Grandolfo and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Ultrasound; medical applications, biological effects and hazard potential", Plenum Press, New York (1987). We hope that all these volumes together may represent a complete textbook and a reference for the students and scientists interested in the physics, biology, measurement and dosimetry, health effects and standard setting, in short, the risk assessment of that wide field of radiation presently classified as non-ionizing radiation. We are indebted to the Associa?ione Italiana Protezione dalle Radiazioni (AIRP), The Internat:l.
There is not an extensive literature on street sweeping. Much of the research that has been completed exists in the "gray" area of technical reports and government documents. Furthermore, a great deal of this research is locally based, and has not been widely published. Indeed, our review of the scientific literature, revealed that, while storm water quality has received a lot of attention, few academicians have been involved in street sweeping research per se. Thus, throughout our research into street we sweeper effectiveness, sweeping protocols, and sweeping practices, wished that there had been a book summarizing some of the important issues associated with street sweeping. As our frustration grew, we realized that we were uniquely poised to write such a book as our research had encompassed a variety of different projects including sweeper testing, waste management, and related storm water quality. Also, early on in this exercise, we recognized that there was a growing demand for information about street sweeping policies and management, especially for studies focusing on the effectiveness of different sweeping schedules, on waste management operations, and on non-point, pollution reduction practices associated with storm water runoff. It was abundantly clear that there was a profound lack of research on street sweeping that could assist with developing local, regional, or national policies. There was, in effect, little guidance for city managers on these issues.